NCAR Technical Notes

The NCAR Technical Notes Collection comprises over 500 scientific and technical reports, issued by NCAR divisions and programs, and consists of data compilations, theoretical and numerical investigations, and experimental results.


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Applications of Statistics to Modeling the Earth's Climate System
Applications of Statistics to Modeling the Earth's Climate System
Content: Application Of Statistics To Modeling The Earth's Climate System NCAR Colloquium - 6 to 19 July 1994 Statistical Science and Global Change Research /Jean Thiebaux Introduction to Climate - Part 1 & Part 2 /Kevin Trenberth Objective Analysis/Combining Information - Part 1: Background - Part 2: Recent Results /Grace Wahba Overview of Statistical Problems in Climate /Paul Julian Atmospheric Science and Statistical Science: Some Historical Connections /Allan Murphy What is Climate?/Edward Lorenz Random Cascades and Atmospheric Processes - Part 1, Part 2 & Part 3/Edward Waymire Ocean Circulation Flows in Probability under Statistical Dynamical Forcing /Greg Holloway Statistics of Coherent Structure in Turbulence /James McWilliams Climate Modeling /Philip Rasch Statistical Methods for Downscaling /Peter Guttorp Estimating Global Mean Temperature from Instrument Data /Richard Gunst GCM Modeling Experiments /Joseph Tribbia Comparison of Model Output with Observations /James Hurrell Some Aspects of Climate Intercomparison /Francis Zwiers Climate Signal and Weather Noise / Cecil Leith, Jr. Time Series Analysis and Spatial Processes /Richard H. Jones Trend Estimation in Time Series /Arthur Dempster Long-range Dependence and Global Warming /Richard Smith The Art of Forecast Skill Evaluation /Robert Livezey Fingerprint Methods in Climate Change Detection Studies /Benjamin Santer Complex Quality Control of Meteorological Data Economically Optimal Strategies for Users of Meteorological Information /Lev Gandin Some Comments on Turbulence and Statistics or Loose Ends Others Have Not Touched Upon /Jackson Herring Optimal Spatial Averaging /Rudolf Weber Kriging /Steve Cherry
Approximate Methods of Calculating Transmission by Bands of Spectral Lines
Approximate Methods of Calculating Transmission by Bands of Spectral Lines
This paper describes approximations that have been found useful in calculating the transmission of molecular gases in planetary atmospheres. This includes the use of band models and empirical models, but not the more complex "line by line" methods. A variety of techniques are described for dealing with the case of transmission through an atmospheric path which is inhomogeneous in the distribution of temperature, pressure and absorber concentration. An extensive bibliography is included.
Ascent Reference Manual
Ascent Reference Manual
A reference manual edited from Control Data Corporation���s copyrighted publications, with Control Data Corporation's written permission for the 6600 and 7600 computer and includes ASCENT language.
Assessing and improving the NWS point-and-click webpage forecast information
Assessing and improving the NWS point-and-click webpage forecast information
The National Weather Service (NWS) is the governmental agency responsible for providing freely available weather forecasts, warnings, watches, and advisories for the protection of life and property. The point-and-click (PnC) forecast webpage is a primary channel through which NWS directly disseminates everyday and hazardous weather forecast information in graphical and textual formats, with a unique forecast for every 2.5 x 2.5 km grid over land in the United States. Because the PnC webpage provides important - and, at times, potentially life-saving - weather information to its millions of users, it is important that the webpage effectively communicates forecast information. This report details a multi-method research project funded by the NWS that (a) assessed the information provided on the PnC webpage from its users' perspectives and (b) designed and evaluated ways to improve how hazardous weather forecast information is communicated on the PnC webpage. Our research revealed a wealth of empirical data about PnC webpage users' uses of, perceptions of, and preferences for the information as well as ways to improve the webpage information to better serve its users. From the results, we identified 13 overarching, key findings as well as important areas for future research.
Assessment of the potential-allocation downscaling methodology for constructing spatial population projections
Assessment of the potential-allocation downscaling methodology for constructing spatial population projections
The IIASA gridded population downscaling methodology is one of only a few existing models for constructing spatially explicit global population scenarios. Furthermore, this methodology is unique in that it does not employ proportional scaling techniques or extrapolated rates of change. Instead, the IIASA methodology applies a gravity-type spatial allocation model to distribute projected national-level change. In this technical note we present and analyze the IIASA methodology within the context of a hypothetical population situated in one-dimensional space. Our results indicate that border effects exert significant influence over spatial population outcomes. Furthermore, over a reasonable time horizon (100-150 years), we find that in most cases the IIASA methodology will have a smoothing effect on existing population distributions. This paper is the first in a series related to the construction of spatial population scenarios organized around the IIASA methodology, and the results presented within not only help to explain the IIASA scenarios, but inform feature research and refinements to the methodology.
Astronaut Operations Requirements Document for the White Light Coronagraph Experiment S-052 for the Apollo Telescope Mount
Astronaut Operations Requirements Document for the White Light Coronagraph Experiment S-052 for the Apollo Telescope Mount
This manual presents information for performing the observers' function in the White Light Coronagraph (WLCE) portion of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) experiments. The preflight, in-flight, and post-flight operations required to perform the experiment are described, and a discussion of the scientific objectives for the experiment and a brief description of the hardware are given.
Asymptotic Behavior of a Continuous Approximation to the Kriging Weighting Function
Asymptotic Behavior of a Continuous Approximation to the Kriging Weighting Function
This technical note contains the detailed arguments of the proof: The main Theorem 4.2 gives conditions on k guaranteeing that the EEC is satisfied and Corollary 4.3 verifies that these conditions are met if k is the Matern covariance under conditions on its parameters.
Asynchronous Communication in Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Atmospheric Dynamics
Asynchronous Communication in Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Atmospheric Dynamics
The scalability of computational applications on current and next generation supercomputers is increasingly limited by the cost of inter-process communication. We implement non-blocking asynchronous communication in the High-Order Methods Modeling Environment for the time-integration of the hydrostatic fluid equations using both the Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin methods. This allows the overlap of computation with communication effectively hiding some of the costs of communication. A novel detail about our approach is that it provides some data movement to be performed during the asynchronous communication even in the absence of other computations. This method produces significant performance and scalability gains in large-scale simulations.
Atlas of Computed Infrared Atmospheric Absorption Spectra: Atmospheric Transmissions in the Wave-number Region From 1 to 2600 Cm-1 for Altitudes Above 54, 45, 40, 30, 14, and 4 Km
Atlas of Computed Infrared Atmospheric Absorption Spectra: Atmospheric Transmissions in the Wave-number Region From 1 to 2600 Cm-1 for Altitudes Above 54, 45, 40, 30, 14, and 4 Km
An atlas of atmospheric absorption calculations is presented for a vertical path through the atmosphere above altitudes of 4, 14, 30, 40, 45, and 54 km. The calculations are made with spectral resolutions of 0.1, 5, and 20 cm-l for the spectral region from 1 to 2600 cm-l. A discussion of the accuracy of the results is presented.
Atlas of Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Cloud Types Over Land
Atlas of Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Cloud Types Over Land
This is the second atlas in a series of four atlases from a study of the global cloud distribution from ground-based observations. The atlas covers cloud observations over the land. The reader is referred to NCAR/TN-201+STR, the first atlas of the series for details of the procedures used in classification and grouping of cloud types, and the general methodology of determining different cloud type co-occurrences. Additional discussion is contained in this atlas to describe those cases where a different procedure was followed either as an improvement, or to fit the different circumstances under which land-based cloud observations are made. The current cloud climatology study is part of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) and will provide a complementary data set for evaluating and validating results from the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) and subsequent field experiments.
Atlas of Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Cloud Types Over the Ocean
Atlas of Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Cloud Types Over the Ocean
This is the first atlas in a series of four atlases from a study of the global cloud distribution from ground-based observations. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), a five-year project is now under way, will study the methods of obtaining cloud information from satellite radiation observations. This atlas of co-occurrence of different cloud types over the ocean is expected to aid in the development of these methods by providing ground-based data for comparison with satellite observations. It should also assist the development of cloud generation schemes in climate models. The frequency of occurrence of each cloud type and the co-occurrence of different types are described, but no information about cloud amounts are included.

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