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Books & Book Chapters

The Books & Book Chapters collection contains citations for books and book chapters written by NCAR staff. Citations date from 1961 to the present and include full text access if possible.


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A climatology of UV radiation, 1979 - 2000
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): DE–A 105–94ER61879, Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching earth’s surface is of interest because of its role in the induction of various biological chemical processes, including skin cancer. We present climatological distributions of monthly mean surface-level UV radiation, calculated using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model with inputs of ozone instruments (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS), aboard Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, and Earth Probe). The climatology is averaged over the years 1979-2000 for UV-A (315 nm – 400 nm), UV-B (280 nm – 315 nm), and radiation weighted by the action spectra for the induction of erythema (skin reddening), pre-vitamin D₃ synthesis, and non-melanoma carcinogenesis. Coverage is global, excluding the poles. Comparisons with concurrent ground-based UV radiation measurements archived at the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center show agreement at the 10%-20% level, except at high latitudes where the large surface albedo of snow and ice invalidates the use of satellite-observed reflectivity in estimating cloud cover. The climatology may be useful in epidemiological studies that assess the role of long-term environmental exposure to UV radiation.
A fully implicit Jacobian-free high-order discontinuous Galerkin mesoscale flow solver
In this work it is shown how to discretize the compressible Euler equations around a vertically stratified base state using the discontinuous Galerkin approach on collocated Gauss type grids. A stiffly stable Rosenbrock W-method is combined with an approximate evaluation of the Jacobian to integrate in time the resulting system of ODEs. Simulations with fully compressible equations for a rising thermal bubble are performed. Also included are simulations of an inertia gravity wave in a periodic channel. The proposed time-stepping method accelerates the simulation times with respect to explicit Runge-Kutta time stepping procedures having the same number of stages.
A new distribution mapping technique for climate model bias correction
We evaluate the performance of different distribution mapping techniques for bias correction of climate model output by operating on synthetic data and comparing the results to an "oracle" correction based on perfect knowledge of the generating distributions. We find results consistent across six different metrics of performance. Techniques based on fitting a distribution perform best on data from normal and gamma distributions, but are at a significant disadvantage when the data does not come from a known parametric distribution. The technique with the best overall performance is a novel nonparametric technique, kernel density distribution mapping (KDDM).

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