Variations

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A case for observing the deep ocean
A case for observing the deep ocean
Roles of the deep ocean in climate, by Gregory C. Johnson and Michale Winton; Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) provides key climate-relevant deep ocean observations, by Lynne D. Talley, Gregory C. Johnson, Sarah Purkey, Richard A. Feely, and Rik Wanninkhof; Deep moored observations and OceanSITES, by Robert A. Weller, Albert J. Pleuddemann, Roger Lukas, Fernando Santiago-Mandujano, and James T. Potemra; Remote sensing of bottom pressure from GRACE satellites, by Cecilia Peralta-Ferriz, Felix W. Landerer, Don P. Chambers, Denis Volkov, and William Llovel; The Argo program samples the deep ocean, by Nathalie Zilberman and Dean Roemmich; Deepgliders for observing ocean circulation and climate, by Charles C. Eriksen, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
A tale of two blobs
A tale of two blobs
The evolution and known atmospheric forcing mechanisms behind the 2013-2015 North Pacific warm anomalies, by Dillon J. Amaya, Nicholas E. Bond, Arthur J. Miller, and Micahel J. DeFlorio; Impact of the Blob on the Northeast Pacific Ocean biogeochemistry and ecosystems, by Samantha Siedlecki, Eric Bjorkstedt, Richard Feely, Adrienne Sutton, Jessica Cross, and Jan Newton; Climate interpretation of the North Pacific marine heatwave of 2013-2015, by Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Giovanni Liguori, and Nathan Mantua; The tale of surprisingly cold blob in the North Atlantic, by Aurelie Duchez, Damien Desbruyeres, Joel J.-M. Hirschi, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Simon Josey, and Dafydd Gwyn Evans; What caused the Atlantic cold blob of 2015? by Stephen G. Yeager, Who M. Kim, and Jon Robson; Greenland Ice Sheet melting influence on the North Atlantic, by Andreas Schmittner, Pepijn Bakker, Rebecca Lynn Beadling, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Sebastian Mernild, Oleg Saenko, and Didier Swingedouw, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
Assessing ocean and atmosphere analyses
Assessing ocean and atmosphere analyses
Driving ecosystem and biogeochemical models with optimal state estimates of the ocean circulation, by Stephanie Dutkiewicz; Evaluation of reanalyses - Developing an Integrated Earth System Analysis (IESA) Capability workshop and the 3rd Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) Workshop: Reanlaysis and Applications, by David M. Legler, Randall Dole, Rob Allan, Gil Compo, and Jim Carton; Comparative analysis of upper ocean heat content variaibltiy from ensemble operational ocean analyses, by Yan Xue, Magdalena A. Balmaseda, Tim Boyer, Nicolas Ferry, Simon Good, Ichiro Ishikawa, Michele Rienecker, Tony Rosati, Yonghong Yin, and Arun Kumar, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
Atlantic basin research challenges
Atlantic basin research challenges
Impact of ocean model resolution on CCSM climate simulations, by Ben P. Kirtman, Cecilia Bitz, Frank Byran, William Collins, John Dennis, Nathan Hearn, James L. Kinter III, Richard Loft, Clement Rousset, Leo Siqueira, Cristiana Stan, Robert Tomas, and Mariana Vertenstein; Comparing the Southern Hemisphere stratocumulus decks in the Community Atmosphere Model, by Brian Medeiros; An investigation of the tropical Atlantic bias problem using a high-resolution coupled regional climate model, by Christina M. Patricola, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Mingkui Li, and Jen-Shan Hsieh; Secular and multidecadal warming of the Atlantic Ocean since the mid-20th Century, by Sang-Ki Lee, David B. Enfield, Wonsun Park, Erik van Sebille, Chunzai Wang, Steven Yeager, Ben Kirtman, and Molly Baringer, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
Climate and the carbon cycle
Climate and the carbon cycle
OCB and US CLIVAR: Scientific questions and global observing capabilities, by Scott Doney; Climate variability and Southern Ocean carbon uptake, by Nicole Lovenduski; Ocean carbon biogeochemistry and US CLIVAR Joint Meeting Summary, by Annalisa Bracco and Ken Johnson; Improving model predictions of ocean biogeochemistry, by Curtis Deutsch, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
Climate is ""hot""
Climate is ""hot""
Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean - The ECCO Consortia, by Patrick Heimbach and Carl Wunsch; The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Western Boundary Current Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, by Bo Qiu, Kathie Kelly, and Mike Alexander, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
Decadal variaiblity and predictability
Decadal variaiblity and predictability
Overview of US CLIVAR Working Group on Decadal Predictability, by Lisa Goddard; Using initialized decadal hindcasts to assess simulated 50-year trends in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean, by Amy Solomon; Evaluation of short-term climate change prediction in multi-model CMIP5 decadal hindcasts, by Hye-Mi Kim, Peter J. Webster, and Judith A. Curry; The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in CMIP5 models: RCP and historical simulations, by Wei Cheng, John Chiang, and Dongxiao Zhang; Sahel rainfall in CMIP5 models, by Michela Biasutti; Multiannual-to-decadal variability of the American monsoons: present climate and CMIP5 projections, by Leila M. V. Carvalho and Charles Jones; Evaluation of multidecadal variability in CMIP5 surface solar radiation and inferred underestimation of aerosol direct effects over Europe, China, Japan, and India, by Robert J. Allen, Joel R. Norris, and Martin Wild, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
Diagnosing temperature and preciptation extremes
Diagnosing temperature and preciptation extremes
Extreme precipitation events: Data issues and meteorological causes, by Kenneth E. Kunkel and David R. Easterling; Statistical methods for relating temperature extremes to large-scale meteorological patterns, by Richard W. Katz and Richard Grotjahn; Self-Organizing Maps: A method for analyzing large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme events, by William J. Gutowski Jr. and John J. Cassano; Diagnosing large-scale meteorological patterns associated with temperature extremes in models and observations, by Anthony J. Broccoli and Paul C. Loikith; The low frequency modulation of anomalous temperature regines during winter, by Robert X. Black, Rebecca M. Westby, and Yun-Young Lee; The making of an extreme event: Putting the piece together, by Randall Dole, Martin Hoerling, Arun Kumar, Jon Eischeid, Judith Perlwitz, Xiao-Wei Quan, George Kiladis, Robert Webb, Donald Murray, Mingyue Chen, Kalus Wolter, and Tao Zhang, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
Drought reigns
Drought reigns
Summer drought and heat waves in South Africa: Observations and couple model behavior, by Bradfield Lyon; Overview of the Drought Working Group Activities, by Siegfried Schubert and David Gutzler; Analysis of the multi-model US CLIVAR Drought Working Group simulations, by Philip Pegion and Arun Kumar; The Caribbean low-level jet: Regional dynamics and its relationshop to precipitations, by Kerry Cook and Edward Vizy, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
ENSO diversity
ENSO diversity
ENSO diversity in observations, by Jin-Yi Yu and Benjamin S. Giese; ENSO diversity in the paleo record, by Kim M. Cobb and Julien Emile-Geay; ENSO diversity in climate models, by Antonietta Capotondi and Andrew Wittenberg; Extra-tropical precursors of ENSO flavors, by Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Honghai Zhang, Amy Clement, Bruce Anderson, and Alexey Federov; The diversity of El Nino in the North American Multi-Model Prediction System, by Ben Kirtman, Johnna M. Infanti, and Sarah M. Larson; Teleconnection and impacts of ENSO diversity, by Tong Lee; The NOAA MAPP Climate Prediction Task Force, by Vasu Misra, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
ENSO: Observing system, predictability, and predictions
ENSO: Observing system, predictability, and predictions
ENSO observing system: Past, present, and future, by William S. Kessler, Arun Kumar, and Neville R. Smith; Ocean data assimilation for ENSO prediction, by Anthony Rosati, Oscar Alves, Magdalena Balmaseda, Xiaosong Yang, and Yan Xue; Current status of ENSO prediction and predictability, by Ben Kirtman; Precursors of ENSO beyond the tropical Pacific, by Jin-Yi Yu and Houk Paek; Climate model biases and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulation, by Antonietta Capotondi, Yoo-Geun Ham, Andrew Wittenberg, and Jong-Seong Kug; Low-frequency variations of ENSO, by Andrew T. Wittenberg, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.
Examining the climate system's predictability
Examining the climate system's predictability
Practices for seasonal-to-interannual climate prediction, by Lisa Goddard and Martin P. Hoerling; U.S. CLIVAR Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Working Group, by Duane Waliser and Ken Sperber; The predictability of ENSO, by Ben Kirtman, The U.S. CLIVAR Project Office produced this report with support from NASA, NOAA, NSF, and DOE. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.

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